pathogens & biofilm (5)

6 Feb 2017

Elimination of Tobacco Mosaic Virus From Irrigation Runoff Using Slow Sand Filtration

Oki, L.R., Lee, E., Pitton, B., Nackley, L.,(University of California (UC) Davis), Bodaghi, S., Mathews, D.M. (UC Riverside), Haver, D. (UC South Coast Research and Extension Center)

Slow sand filters have been shown to remove pythiacious organisms from captured runoff water.  In this study, Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV) was regularly added to irrigation runoff water.  The virus passed through the sand filters for approximately 5 weeks, but gradually reduced to undetectable virus titer using ELISA during week 6 to 9.  This is the first report that showed slow sand filters removed TMV from runoff water.

See the article in the link below

18 Nov 2016

Slow Sand Filters: A Biological Treatment Method To Remove Plant Pathogens From Nursery Runoff

Oki, L.R., Nackley, L.L., Pitton, B. (University of California Davis)

Slow sand filters (SSF) can provide high quality water from untreated sources including irrigation runoff.  A microorganism community develops on the sand and can breakdown a wide range of pollutants including plant pathogens. We studied the capacity of these filters to remove different kinds of plant pathogens from irrigation runoff.  SSFs removed Phytophthora capsici after microbial establishment and after a simulated seven day pump failure in previously established SSFs.  SSFs did not remove F. oxysporum after seven weeks.  The SSFs were also able to remove tobacco mosaic virus from inoculated runoff water after 6 to 9 weeks of exposure.

Click on the link to view the abstract

1 Apr 2016

SCRI Integrated Management of Zoosporic Pathogens and Irrigation Water Quality for a Sustainable Green Industry

Virginia Tech, Pennsylvania State University, University of Maryland, USDA/ARS, University of California-Riverside, Rutgers University, Christopher Newport University

Results from another Specialty Crops Research Initiative project with the following objectives:
• To describe new species of Phytophthora and Pythium found in irrigation systems, assess their potential risk to the health of ornamental crops and formulate recommendations on risk avoidance and mitigation that are applicable at local and national levels
• To develop a better understanding of the dynamics of water quality in reservoirs and formulate guidelines to assist irrigation managers in mitigating the risk of nutrient deficiency and toxicity
• To develop a better understanding of the interactions occurring among water quality parameters, microbial communities, and plant pathogens in the aquatic environment
• To apply the knowledge gained in this work to develop best management practice (BMP) protocols for mitigating the dissemination of plant pathogens through irrigation systems
• To evaluate the effects that the adoption of BMPs have on production costs, revenue enhancement, and associated social and environmental benefits
• To develop an online knowledge center on waterborne plant pathogens and irrigation water quality management and use the website to deliver information and educational programs to growers, students and other scientists in order to quickly disseminate science-based knowledge and encourage the adoption of the BMPs developed through this project.

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Description of research activities

A national team of scientists is working to encourage use of alternative water resources by the nation’s billion-dollar nursery and floriculture industry has been awarded funds for the first year of an $8.7 million, five year US Department of Agriculture – National Institute of Food and Agriculture –Specialty Crop Research Initiative competitive grant.

The team will develop and apply systems-based solutions to assist grower decision making by providing science-based information to increase use of recycled water.  This award from the NIFA’s Specialty Crop Research Initiative is managed by Project Director Sarah White of Clemson University.  She leads a group of 21 scientists from nine U.S. institutions.

Entitled “Clean WateR3 - Reduce, Remediate, Recycle – Enhancing Alternative Water Resources Availability and Use to Increase Profitability in Specialty Crops”, the Clean WateR3 team will assist the grower decision-making process by providing science-based information on nutrient, pathogen, and pesticide fate in recycled water both before and after treatment, average cost and return-on investment of technologies examined, and model-derived, site specific recommendations for water management.  The trans-disciplinary Clean WateR3 team will develop these systems-based solutions by integrating sociological, economic, modeling, and biological data into a user-friendly decision-support system intended to inform and direct our stakeholders’ water management decision-making process.

The Clean WateR3 grant team is working with a stakeholder group of greenhouse and nursery growers throughout the United States.

For example, at the University of Florida graduate student George Grant is collecting data on removal of paclobutrazol, a highly persistent plant growth regulator chemical, from recirculated water using granular activated carbon (GAC) filters. This is being done in both research greenhouses and in a commercial site. The GAC filters can remove more than 90% of chemical residues, and are proving to be a cost-effective treatment method.